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Gujarat is a state considered to be part of Western India and Northwest India with an area of 196,024 km2 (75,685 sq mi), a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi)–most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. It is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Daman and Diu to the south, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad.[14] The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state.

The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, and during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era. Gujarat is one of three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol.

ujarat was one of the main central areas of the Indus Valley Civilization.[20] It contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was where India's first port was established. The ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat.